Hrvatske vode
 
Sudbina N-nitrozamina u okolišu i primjenljivi postupci njihovog uklanjanja iz voda
The fate of N-nitrosamines in the environment and applicable methods for their removal from water

Silvia Morović, Krešimir Košutić, Bruna Babić, Danijela Ašperger

Sažetak/Abstract: 

N-nitrozamini pripadaju grupi organskih spojeva opće kemijske strukture R1N(-R2)-N=O, a nastaju reakcijama oksidacije sekundarnih ili tercijarnih amina uz pomoć nitrozacijskog sredstva. Pronađeni su u duhanskim proizvodima, sušenom mesu, alkoholnim pićima, siru, konzerviranom voću, te se smatraju nepoželjnim tvarima za konzumiranje. Redovito su prisutni u otpadnim vodama u procesima prerade kože, ribe, u proizvodnji pesticida, boja i gume. Iako prisutni u tragovima, predstavljaju ozbiljnu prijetnju za vodni okoliš i ljudsko zdravlje. Posljednjih godina N-nitrozamini predmet su brojnih analitičkih istraživanja, privlače pozornost različitih regulatornih tijela te se svrstavaju u tvari koje su "vjerojatno kancerogene za ljude". Poznavanje puteva nastajanja N-nitrozamina u vodenim sustavima, mehanizama razgradnje i transformacije te njihovog učinka na okoliš i zdravlje čovjeka ključno je za sprječavanje njihovog nastanka i odabir fizikalno kemijskih i drugih postupaka za njihovo uklanjanje iz voda. U ovom preglednom radu, detaljno su opisani mehanizmi nastanka i učinkovitost uklanjanja N-nitrozamina iz voda pojedinim metodama.

N-nitrosamines belong to a group of organic compounds with the general chemical structure. R1N(-R2)-N=O, and are formed by oxidation reactions of secondary or tertiary amines with nitrosating agents. They have been found in tobacco products, smoked meats, alcoholic beverages, cheeses, and canned fruits and are considered undesirable for consumption. They are regularly detected in fish processing and leather industry wastewater, as well as in the production of pesticides, dyes and rubber. Although present in trace amounts, they pose a serious threat to the aquatic environment and human health. In recent years, N-nitrosamines have been the subject of numerous analytical studies, have attracted the attention of various regulatory agencies, and have been classified as substances that are “probably carcinogenic to humans.” Understanding the formation pathways of N-nitrosamines in aqueous systems, the mechanisms of degradation and transformation, and their impact on the environment and human health is crucial for preventing their formation and thus for selecting physicochemical and/or other methods for their removal from water. This article provides a detailed overview of the formation mechanisms and the efficiency of removal of N-nitrosamines from water by different methods.
Kategorija: 
Pregledni članak / Review Paper
Ključne riječi/Key words: 

N-nitrozamini, prekursori, dezinfekcijski nusprodukti, kloraminacija, metode obrade voda.

N-Nitrosamines, precursors, disinfectionby-products, chloramination, water treatment methods.

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Literatura/References: 

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