Hrvatske vode
 
Arsen u vodama – porijeklo, toksični učinak i metode uklanjanja
Arsenic in water – origin, toxic effects and methods of elimination

Višnja Oreščanin1

Sažetak/Abstract: 

U radu su prikazani najvažniji prirodni i antropogeni izvori arsena u okolišu te podzemnim i površinskim vodama. Dan je pregled područja u svijetu najopterećenijih arsenom te raspon njegovih koncentracija u vodama koje se koriste u vodoopskrbi, s posebnim naglaskom na vode s područja Panonskog bazena. Obzirom na visoku toksičnost arsena, u radu su također prikazani najvažniji toksični učinci uključujući djelovanje na kožu, kardiovaskularni, respiratorni, gastrointestinalni i živčani sustav. Tatkođer su prikazani osnovni mehanizmi toksičnog djelovanja na različitim test sustavima uključujući i utjecaj na čovjeka koji u konačnici može dovesti do raka pluća, kože, bubrega, mjehura i jetre, a kao posljedica kronične izloženosti arsenu najčešće oralnim putem preko kontaminirane vode i hrane. Obzirom da konzumacija vode opterećene arsenom predstavlja značajan zdravstveni rizik za izloženu populaciju, posebno poglavlje u radu posvećeno je metodama njegovog uklanjanja iz voda koje se koriste u vodoopskrbi. Dan je kratki prikaz najčešće korištenih standardnih metoda obrade te detaljnije opisan novi pristup baziran na primjeni elektrokemijskih metoda samih ili u kombinaciji s naprednim oksidacijskim procesima koje imaju brojne prednosti u odnosu na standardnu fizikalno-kemijsku obradu..

 

The paper present the most important natural and anthropogenic sources of arsenic in groundawater and surface waters. It gives an overview of areas around the world with THE highest arsenic loads, and the range of its concentrations in water used for water supply, with a special focus on the water from the Pannonian basin. Considering arsenic’s high toxicity, the paper also presents its most important toxic effects, including effects on skin and cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous system. It further presents the basic mechanisms of its toxic effect on different test systems, including its impact on people which can eventually lead to lung, skin, kidney, bladder or liver cancer as a consequence of chronic exposure to arsenic, mostly orally through contaminated water and food. Having in mind that the consumption of water with arsenic content poses a significant health risk for the exposed population, a special chapter in the paper is dedicated to the methods of its elimination from water used in water supply. There is a brief overview of the most frequently used standard methods of water purification, and a detailed description of the new approach based on application of electrochemical methods, alone or in combination with advanced oxidation processes, which have numerous advantages over the standard physico-chemical treatment.

Kategorija: 
Pregledni članak / Review Paper
Ključne riječi/Key words: 

arsen, toksičnost, podzemne vode, pročišćavanje, fizikalno-kemijske metode, elektrokemijske metode

arsenic, toxicity, groundwater, purification, physico-chemical methods, electrochemical methods

Podaci o autorima/Authors affiliations: 

1Napredna energije d.o.o., V. Prekrata 43, 10000 Zagreb, vorescan@gmail.com

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