Hrvatske vode
 
Pročišćavanje otpadnih voda industrije prerade riba
Treatment of wastewater from fish processing industry

Stanka Zrnčević1

Sažetak/Abstract: 

Otpadne vode industrije prerade riba predstavljaju veliki ekološki problem te se bez prethodne obrade ne smiju ispuštati u okoliš. Visoke vrijednosti organskog onečišćenja, prisutnost toksičnih i inhibitornih tvari te sezonalnost i dnevna varijacija prerade riba zahtijevaju kombinaciju različitih postupaka obrade kako bi se ove vode učinile neškodljivim te zadovoljili zakonski kriteriji za njihov ispust u okoliš ili sustav javne odvodnje.

U radu su ukratko opisani procesi prerade riba, budući da isti, uz vrstu ribe koja se prerađuje te produkte koji se žele dobiti, direktno utječu na količinu i kakvoću nastalih otpadnih voda. Dani su podatci o sastavu otpadne vode, o njenom utjecaju na ekosustav mora i priobalja te o učinku toksičnih sastojaka na različite testne organizme. Uvidom u rezultate istraživanja objavljene u svjetskoj literaturi, opisani su najčešće rabljeni postupci obrade te su navedeni podatci o djelotvornosti pojedinih procesa na postizanje smanjenja pokazatelja opterećenja otpadnih voda nastalih u procesima prerade riba.

 

The treatment of fish processing wastewater poses a major ecological problem, thus it cannot be discharged into the environment without a preliminary treatment. The high values of organic pollution, a presence of toxic and inhibitory substances and a seasonality and daily variations of fish processing require a combination of different processing procedures in order to make this wastewater harmless and comply with legal criteria for its discharge into the environment or a public sewerage system.

The paper briefly describes fish processing procedures since they, along with fish species that are processed and intended products, directly influence the quantity and quality of generated wastewater. It further contains data on wastewater composition, its impact on the marine and coastal ecosystems as well as the impact of toxic ingredients on different test organisms. Based on the insight into research results published in literature, it describes the most frequently used processing procedures and quotes data on the efficiency of individual procedures on achieving a reduction in indicators of wastewater load originating from fish processing.

Kategorija: 
Pregledni članak / Review Paper
Ključne riječi/Key words: 

otpadne vode prerade riba, podrijetlo, kemijski sastav, toksični učinci, metode obrade

fish processing wastewater, origin, chemical composition, toxic impacts, processing methods

Podaci o autorima/Authors affiliations: 

1Fakultet kemijskog inženjerstva i tehnologije Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb, szrnce@fkit.hr

Literatura/References: 

Aanand S.; Divya M.; Deepak T.; Padmavathi P.; Manimekalai D. (2017.): Rewiev of seafood processing plant wastewater bioremediation-A pootential tool for waste management. International Journal of Applied Research, 3, 1-4.

 

Abdel-Shafy H.I.; Mansour M.S.M. (2016.): A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25, 107–123.

 

Achour M.; Khelifi O.; Bouazizi I.; Hamdi M. (2000.): Design of an integrated bioprocess for the treatment of tuna processing liquid effluents. Process Biochemistry, 35, 1013–1017.

 

Afonso M.D.; Bòrquez R. (2002.): Nanofiltration of wastewaters from the fish meal industry. Desalination, 151, 131-138.

 

Afonzo L.O.; Richmond Z.; Eaves A.A.; Richard J.; Hawley L.M.; Garver K.A. (2012.): Use of ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation to inactivate infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (INHV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in fish processing plant effluent. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 3, 1-5.

 

Aguiar A.L.C.; Sant’Anna Jr. G.L. (1988.): Liquid effluents of the fish canning industries of Rio de Janeiro state ‐ Treatment alternatives. Environmental Technology Letters, 9, 421-428.

 

Alexandre V.M.F.; Valente A.M.; Cammarota M.C.; Freire D.M.G. (2011.): Performance of anaerobic bioreactor treating fish-processing plant wastewater prehydrolyzed with a solid enzyme pool. Renewable Energy, 36, 3439-3444.

 

Al-Rousan S.; Rasheed M.; Badran M.. (2004.): Nutrient diffusive fluxes from sediments in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Scientia Marina, 68, 483-490.

 

Alrumman S.A.; El-kott A.F.; Keshk, S.M.A.S. (2016.): Water Pollution: Source & Treatment. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 6, 88–98.

 

AMEC (International Association for the Measurement and Evaluation of Communication) 2003., Management of wastes from Atlantic seafood processing operations. Earth and environment limited, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.

 

Anijiofor S.C.; Daud N.N.N.; Idrus S., Man H.C. (2018.): Recycling of fishpond wastewater by adsorption of pollutants using aged refuse as an alternative low-cost adsorbent. Sustainable Environment Research, 1-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.serj.2018.05.005

 

Antelo L.T.; Lopes C.; Franco-Uría A.; Alonso A.A. (2012.): Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64, 1277-1190.

 

Artiga P.; Oyanedel V.; Garrido J.M.; Méndez R. (2005.): An innovative biofilm-suspended biomass hybrid membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Desalination, 179, 171-179.

 

Artiga P.; García-Toriello G.; Méndez R.; Garrido J.M. (2008.): Use of a hybrid membrane bioreactor for the treatment of saline wastewater from a fish canning factory. Desalination, 221, 518-525.

 

Arvanitoyannis I.S.; Tserkezou P.; Fish waste management, In Seafood Processing: Technology, Quality and Safety, Ed. Boziaris I.S., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014, 263-309.

 

Balslev-Olesen P.; Lynggaard, J.A.; Nickelsen, C. (1990.): Pilot-scale experiments on anaerobic treatment of wastewater from a fish processing plant. Water Science and Technology, 22, 463–474.

 

Bassin J.P.; Kleerebezem R.; Muyzer G.; Rosado A.S.; Van Loosdrecht M.C.M.; Dezotti M. (2012.): Effect of different salt adaptation strategies on the microbial diversity, activity, and settling of nitrifying sludge in sequencing batch reactors. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 93, 1281–1294.

 

Bilotta G.S.; Brazier R.E. (2008.): Understanding the influence of suspended solids on water quality and aquatic biota. Water Research, 42, 2849-2861.

 

Boeriu L.M.; Cirstolovean L.; Fratu M.; Nastac C. (2013.): The tertiary treatment stage of wastewater. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, 6, 207-212.

 

Carawan R.E.; Chambers J.V.; Zall R.R. (1979.): Seafood Water and Wastewater Management. The North Carolina, Agricultural Extension Service. U.S.A.

 

Chen L.; Feng Q.; Li C.; Wei Y.; Zhao Y.; Feng Y.; Zheng H.; Li F.; Li H. (2017.): Impact of aquaculture wastewater irrigation on soli microbial functional diversity and community structure in arid regions. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-10.

 

Chowdhury P.; Viraraghavan T.; Srinivasan A. (2010.): Biological treatment processes for fish processing wastewater – a review. Bioresource Technology, 101, 439–449.

 

Ching Y.C.; Redzwan G. (2017.): Biological treatment of fish processing saline wastewater for reuse as liquid fertilizer. Sustainability, 9, 1-26.

 

Colic M.; Morse W.; Hicks J.; Lechter A.; Miller J.D. (2007.) A case study of fish processing plant wastewater treatment. Water Practice, 2, 1-11.

 

Colic M.; Morse W.; Miller J.D. (2007.): The development and application of centrifugal flotation systems in wastewater treatment. International Journaal of Environment and Pollution, 30, 2996-302.

 

Corsino S. F.; Capodici M.; Morici C.; Torregrossa M.; Viviani G. (2016.): Simultaneous nitritationdenitritation for the treatment of high-strength nitrogen in hypersaline wastewater by aerobic granular sludge. Water Research, 88, 329-336.

 

Cristóvão R.O.; Botelho C.M.; Martinsa R.J.; Loureiro J.M.; Boaventura R.A.R. (2012.): Pollution prevention and wastewater trreatmennt in fish canning industries of Northern Portugal. 2012. International Conference on Environment Science and Engineeering (Singgapoore), 32, 12-16.

 

Cristóvão R.O.; Botelho C.M.; Martinsa R.J.; Loureiro J.M.; Boaventura R.A.R. (2014.a): Primary treatment optimization of a fish canning wastewater from a Portuguese plant. Water Resources and Industry, 6, 51–63.

 

Cristóvão R.O.; Goncalves C.; Botelho C.M.; Martinsa R.J.; Boaventura R.A.R. (2014.b): Chemical oxidation of fish canning wastewater by Fenton,s reagent. Journal of Environment Chemical Engineering, 2, 2372-2376.

 

Cristóvão R.O.; Botelho C.M.; Martins R.J.E.; Loureiro J.M.; Boaventura A.R. (2015.a): Fish canning industry wastewater treatment for water reuse – a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 603-612.

 

Cristóvão R.O.; Gonçalves C.; Botelho C.M.; Martins R.J.E.; Loureiro J.M.; Boaventura R.A.R (2015.b): Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of factorial design optimization, Water Resources and Industry, 10, 29-38.

 

Cui Y.W.; Zhang H.Y.; Ding J.R.; Peng, Y.Z. (2016.): The effects of salinity on nitrification using halophilic nitrifiersin a Sequencing Batch Reactor treating hypersaline wastewater. Scientific Report, 6, 24–25.

 

de Melo Ribeiro F.H.; Naval L.P. (2017.): Technologies for wastewater treatment from the fish processing industry: reuse alternatives. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais - RBCIAMB, 46, 130-144.

 

Dindarloo K.; Jamali A.H.; Lakbala P.; Mahmoodi H.; Kazemi F. (2015.): Feasibility of electrochemical oxidation process for treatment of saline wastewater. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 2, 129–134.

 

Duarte J. G.; Silva L. L. S.; Freire D. M.; Cammarota M. C.; Gutarra M. L. E. (2015.): Enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic biological treatment of fish industry effluent: evaluation of the mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Renewable Energy, 83, 455-462.

 

Dulova N.; Trapido M. (2011.): Appllcation of Fenton¢s reaction for food-processing wastewater treatment. Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, 14, 9-16.

 

Dvorak G. (2008.): Disinfection101, http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Disinfection/Assets/Disinfection101.pdf. DZS – Državni zavod za statistiku, Priopćenje: Ribarstvo u 2016., br.1.4.1., 2017.

 

EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Devellopment) Sub-Sectoral Environmental and Social Guideline: Fish Processing 2014, 1-23.

 

Eurostat, Catches in all fishing regions, 2018., http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database

 

Fahim F.A.; Fleita D.H.; Ibrahim A.M.; El-Dars F.M.S. (2001.): Evaluation of some methods for fish canning wastewater treatment. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 127, 205-226.

 

FAO 2018. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018. - Meeting the sustainable development goals. Rome.

 

Ferrante M.; Sciacca S.; Fallico R.; Fiore M.; Oliveri Conti G.; Ledda C. (2013.): Harmful algal blooms in the Mediterranean sea: Effects on human halth. 2:587 doi: 10.4172 / scientificreports.587.

 

García M.A.; Montelongo I.; Rivero A.; de la Paz N.; Fernández M.; de Villavicencio M.N. (2016.): Treatment of wastewater from fish processing industry using chitosan acid salts. International Journal of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 2, 1-6.

 

Ghaly A.E.; Ramakrishnan V.V.; Brooks M.S.; Budge S.M. and Dave D. (2013.): Fish processing wastes as a potential source of proteins, amino acids and oils: A critical review. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 5, 107-129.

 

Govere S.; Mahlatini P.; Ndabaning A. (2011.): Performance and loading of domestic wastewater treatment plants receiving aquaculture processing effluent. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3, 354-360.

 

Guerrero L.; Omil F.; Méndez R.; Lema J.M. (1998.): Protein recovery during the overall treatment of wastewaters from fish-meal factories. Bioresource Technology, 63, 221-229.

 

Guo M.; Hu H.; Liu W. (2009.): Preliminary investigation on safety of post-UV disinfection of wastewater: Biostability in laboratory-scale simulated reuse water pipelines. Desalination, 239, 22-28.

 

Guo M.; Huang J.; Hu H.; Liu W. (2011.): Growth and repair potential of three species of bacteria in reclaimed wastewater after UV disinfection. Biomedical and Environmental Science, 24, 400-407.

 

Hallmich C.; Gehr R. (2010.): Effeect of pre- and post-UV disinfection conditions on photoreactivation of fecal coliforms in wastewater effluents. Water Research, 44, 2885-2893.

 

Hamoda M.F.; Al-Attar M.S. (1995.): Effects of high sodium chloride concentrations on activated sludge treatment. Water Science and Technology, 31, 61–72

 

Hari P.; Neeraja P. (2012.): Ambien ammonia stress on certain detoxifying enzymes in kidney tissues of fish Cyprinus Carpio. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 3, 213- 217.

 

HGK (Hrvatska gospodarska komora), 2016. Republika Hrvatska 2016, Zagreb, 2016, ISSN1846-9183.

 

Hyundong L.; Usman R.; Myeongsik K. (2018.): A study on the comparison corrosion in water supplay pipes due to tap water and reclaimed water. Water, 10, 496 – 517.

 

IFC 2007., Environmental, health and safety guidelines for fish processing. International Finance Corporation World Bank Group.

 

Islam M.D.; Khan S.; Tanaka M. (2004.): Waste loading in shrimp and fish processing effluents: Potential source of hazards to the coastal and nearshore environments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 103–110.

 

Jamieson B.L.; Goncalves A.A.; Gagnon G.A. (2010.): Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent. Environmental Toxicology, 225, 137-146.

 

Jayashree C.; Tamilarasan K.; Rajkumar M.; Arulazhagan P.; Yogalakshmi K.N.; Srikanth M.; Banu J.R. (2016.): Treatment of seafood processing wastewater using upflow microbial fuel cell for power generation and identification of bacterial community in anodic biofilm. Journal of Environmental Management, 180, 351-358.

 

Jemli M.; Karray F.; Feki F.; Loukil S.; Mhiri N.; Aloui F.; Sayadi S. (2015.): Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia). Journal of Environmental Sciences, 30, 102-112.

 

Joong K.K.; Jeong B.K.; Kyoung S.C.; Yong K.H. (2007.): Isolation and identification of microorganisms and their aerobic biodegradation of fish-meal wastewater for liquid-fertilization. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 59, 156–165.

 

Kadria U.; Damayanti A.; Mangkoedihardjo S. (2012.): Toxicity of Wastewater from Oil and Filleting Industries towards Artemia in Muncar of Indonesia. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 2, 336-341.

 

Kang J.H.; Jung H.Y.; Kim J.K. (2018.): Complete reuse of raw fish meal wastewater: Evidence from a field cultivation study and economic analysis. Environmental Engineering Research, 23, 271-281.

 

Kaosol T.; Sohgrathok N. (2012.): Influence of hydraulicretention time on biogas production from frozen seafood wastewater using decanter cake as anaerobic co-digestion material. International Scholarly and Scientific Research and Innovation, 6, 303-307.

 

Kargi F.; Uygur A. (1996.): Biological treatment of saline wastewater in an aerated percolator unit utilizing halophilic bacteria. Environmental Technology, 17, 320–325.

 

Kargi F.; Dincer A.R. (1999.): Salt inhibition of nitrification and denitrification in saline wastewater. Environmental Technology, 20, 1147–1153.

 

Koop K.; Boynton W.R.; Wulff F.; Carman R. (1990.): Sediment-water oxygen and nutrient exchanges along a depth gradient in the Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 63, 65-77.

 

Lalonde B.A.; Garron C.A.; Ernst W. Characterization and toxicity testing of fish processing effluent in Canada, Environmental Protection Operations Directorate Environment Canada, Atlantic Region, 2007, EPS 5-AR-07-03.

 

Leal J.C.M.; Panta C.A.C; Ferrín A.I.V.; Cabo P.A.G.; Rodríguez L.M.Z. (2015.): Wastewater treatment of fish processsing industry in batch anaerobic reactors. Ciencia e Ingeniería Neogranadina, 25, 27 – 42.

 

Maduna Valkaj K.; Kaselj I.; Islamović S.; Zrnčević S. (2015.): Katalitička oksidacija otpadnih voda iz procesa prerade maslina vodikovim peroksidom. Hrvatske vode, 23, 257-266.

 

Maduna K.; Kumar N.; Aho A.; Wärna J.; Zrnčević S. (2018.): Kinetics of catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenolic in olive oil mill wastewaters over copper catalysts. ACS Omega, 3, 7247-7260.

 

Marti M.C.; Roeckel M.; Aspe E.; Novoa M. (1994.): Fat removal from process waters of the fish meal industry. A study of three flotation methods. Environmental Technology Reviews, 15, 29-39.

 

Mavrov V.; E. Bélières E. (2000.): Reduction of water consumption and wastewater quantities in the food industry by water recycling using membrane processes. Desalination, 131, 75-86.

 

Moussa M.S.; Sumanasekera D.U.; Irahim S.H.; Lubberding H.J.; Hooijmans C.M.; Gijzen H.J.; Loosdrecht M.C.M. (2006.): Long term effects of salt on activity, population structure and floc characteristics in enriched bacterial cultures of nitrifiers. Water Research, 40, 377–388.

 

Mseddi S; Chakchouk I.; Aloui F.; Sayadi S.; Kallel M. (2014.): Development of a process for the treatment of fish processing saline wastewater. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52, 10-12.

 

Muthukumaran S.; Baskaran K. (2013.): Organic and nutrient reduction in a fish processing facility - a case study. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 85, 563-570.

 

Nath S.; Chowdhury S.; Dora K.C. (2015.): General overview of wastewater treatment coming from fish processing plant. Fishcoops, no. Jul-Sept.,17-27.

 

Najafpour G.D.; Zinatizadeh A.A.L.; Lee L.K., (2006.): Performance of a three-stage aerobic RBC reactor in food canning wastewater treatment. Biochemical Engineeering Journal, 30, 297–302.

 

Navami D.; Chinnamma M.A. (2017.): Fishing industry waste water treatment by polyelectrolytes. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS), 3, 374-377.

 

Nguyen P.T.; Dao T.H. (2012.): Study on modelling fish processing wastewater anaerobic treatment. ASEAN Engineering Journal Part C, 4, 5-15

 

Nguyen V.H.; Nguyen T.P. (2013.): Treatment of fishery wastewater by sequencing batch moving bed biofilm reactor (SBMBBR). 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Athens, Greece, 5-7 September 2013.

 

Nguyen P.T.; Mai L.T. (2013.): Study on fish processing wastewater treatment by swim-bed and stickbed processes. Journal of Water Sustainability, 3, 79–84.

 

Omil F.; Méndez R.; Lema J.M. (1995.): Anaerobic treatment of saline wastewaters under high sulphide and ammonia content. Bioresource Technology, 54, 269-278.

 

Omil F.; Méndez R.; Lema J.M. (1996.): Anaerobic treatment of seafood processing waste waters in an industrial anaerobic pilot plant. Water S.A., 22, 173-181.

 

Otake S.; Fukui K.; Teraoka K.; Yoshida H. (1977.): Electrocoagulating treatment of waste water from fish paste-manufacturing factories. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 43, 975-981.

 

Palenzuela-Rollon A.; Zeeman G.; Lubberding H.J.; Lettinga G.; Alaerts G.J. (2002.): Treatment of fish processing wastewater in a one- or two-step upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Water Science and Technology, 45, 207–212.

 

Panswad T.; Anan C. (1999.): Specific oxygen, ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of a biological nutrient removal process treating elevated salinity wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 70, 237–243.

 

Parvathy U.; Rao K.H.; Jeyakumari A.; Zynudheen A.A. (2017.): Biological treatment systems for fish processing wastewater - A review. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 16, 447-453.

 

Pérez-Gálveza R.; Guadix E.M.; Berge J.P.; Guadix A. (2011.): Operation and cleaning of ceramic membranes for the filtration of fish press liquor. Journal of Membrane Sciences, 384, 142-148.

 

Politike Europske unije: Pomorstvo i ribarstvo, Ured za publikacije Europske unije, Luxemburg, 2016., ISBN 978-92-79-55882-5, http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/reform/index_en.htm  

 

Portz D. E.; Woodley, C. M.; Cech, J. J. Jr. (2006.): Stress-associated impacts of short-term holding on fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 16, 125-170.

 

Prasertsan P.; Jung S.; Buckle K.A. (1994.): Anaerobic filter treatment of fishery wastewater. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10, 11-13.

 

Ravichandran S.; Kumaravel K.; Florence E.P. (2011.): Nutritive composition of some edible fin fishes. International Journal of Zoological Research, 7, 241-251.

 

Rebah F.B.; Miled N. (2013.): Fish processing wastes for microbial enzyme production: a review. Biotechnology Journal, 3, 255–265.

 

Riaño B.; Molinuevo B.; García-González M.C. (2011.): Treatment of fish processing wastewater with microalgae-containing microbiota. Bioresource Technology, 102, 10829–10833.

 

Rose K.; Kelly D.; Kemker C.; Fitch K.; Card A.; pH of water, In Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements, http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-quality/ph/#p

 

Rustad T.; var Storrø I.; and Slizyte R. (2011.): Possibilities for the utilization of marine by-products. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 46, 2001 2014.

 

Sankpal S.T.; Naikwade P.V. (2012.): Physochemical analysis of effluent discharge of fish processing industries in Ratnagiri India. Bioscience Discovery, 3, 107-111.

 

Saraswat S.; Kouthanker M.; Kurtarkar S.; Nigam R.; Linshy V.N. (2011.): Effect of salinity induced pH changes on benthic foraminifera: a laboratory culture experiment. Biogeosciences Discussions, 8, 8423–8450.

 

Sarnaik S.S.; Phalke V.V.; Kanekar P.P. (2015.): Removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from fish processing wastewater using bioaugmentation technique. International Journal of Pharma and BioScience, 6, 1021-1029.

 

Sellner K.G.; Doucette G.J.; Kirkpatrick G.J. (2003.): Harmful algal blooms: Causes, impacts and detection. The Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30, 383-406.

 

Selvi V.; Sathiyamoorthy M.; Karthikeyan D.R.C. (2014.): Nitrification of fish processing waste water using mixed cultures of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobactor for ammonia degradation (Phase-I). Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: Bio-Tech and Genetics. 14, 33-46.

 

Sérot T.; Baron R.; Knockaert C.; Vallet J.L. (2004.): Effect of smoking processes on the contents of 10 major phenolic compounds in smoked fillets of herring (Cuplea harengus). Food Chemistry, 85, 111-120.

 

Shaw G.R.; Moore D.P.; Garnett C. Euthrophication and Algal Blooms. In Environmental and Ecological Chemistry, Vol II., Ed. Sabljić A., 2009., 1-10.

 

Sherly T.M.V.; Harindranathan N.; Bright S.I.S. (2015.): Physicochemical analysis of seafood processing effluents in Aroor Gramapanchayath, Kerala. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 9, 38–44.

 

STECF - Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries, The Economic Performance of the EU Fish Processing Industry (STECF - 17-16) 2017.

 

Steckbauer A.; Duarte C.M.; Carstensten J.; Vaquer-Sunyer R.; Conley D. J. (2011.): Ecosystem impacts of hypoxia: thresholds of hypoxia and pathways to recovery. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 1-12.

 

Sundarapandiyan S.; Chandrasekar R.; Ramanaiah B.; Krishnan S.; Saravanan P. (2015.): Electrochemical oxidation and reuse of tannery saline wastewater. Journal of Hazardouus Materials, 180, 197-203.

 

Tay J.H.; Show K.Y.; Hung Y.T. Seafood processing wastewater treatment. In Waste treatment in the food processing industry; Eds.: Wang L.K.; Hung Y.T.; Lo H.H.; Yapijakis C.; CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2006, pp. 29–66.

 

Thomas S.; Nair H.M.V.; Singh I.S.B. (2015.): Physicochemical analysis of seafood processing eeffluents in Aroor Gramapanchayath, Kerala. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 9, 38-44.

 

Thriault M.H.; Courtenay S.C.; Munkittrick K.R.; Chiasson A.G. (2007.) The effect of seafood processing plant effluent on sentinel fish species in coastal waters of the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, New Brunswick. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 42, 172–183.

 

Tomaczak-Wandzel R.; Arctander Vik E.; Wandzel T. BAT in fish processing industry-Nordic perspective. 2015, ISBN 978-92-893-4315-2.

 

Tongo I.; Ogbeide O.; Ezemonye L. (2017.): Human health assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAs) in smoked fish species from markets in Southern Nigeria. Toxicology Reports, 4, 55-61.

 

Wałkuska G.; Wilczek A. (2010.): Influence of discharged heated water on aquatic ecosystem fauna. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19, 547-552.

 

Wang L.K.; Aulenbach D.B.; Shammas N.K. Treatment of seafood processing wastewater, in Flotation Technology, Eds. Wang L.K.; Shammas N.K.; Selke W.A.; Aulenbach D.B., Humana Press, 2010, p.567-

680.

 

Wasave S.M.; Kulakarni G.N. (2004.): Surimi wastewater characteristics and its toxicity to the fingerlings of tilapia - Oreochromis mossambicus. Pollution Research, 22, 125–130.

 

Watson R. (1996.): Trials to determine the effectiveness of screening and disolved air flotation (DAF) for treating herring and white fish procrssing effluent. The Sea Fish Industry Authority, Sea fish Technology, Seafish Report No. SR500.

 

Weber-Scannell P.K.; Duffy L.K. (2007.): Effects of total dissolved solids on aquatic organisms: A Review of literature and recommendation for salmonid species. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3, 1-6.

 

Weilong S.; Zhipeng L.; Yi D.; Feng L.; Hong Y.; Peishi Q.; Fang W.; Yizhu L.; Chao J. (2018): Performance of a novel hybrid membrane bioreactor for treating saline wastewater from mariculture: Assessment of pollutants removal and membrane filtration performance. Chemical Engineering Journal, 331, 695-703

 

Woolard C.R.; Irvine R.L. (1995.): Response of a periodically operated halophilic biofilm reactor to changes in salt content. Water Science and Technology, 31, 41–50.

 

Wu T.Y.; Mohammad A.W.; Anuar N.; Rahman R.A. (2002.): Potential use of nanofiltration membrane in treatment of wastewater from fish and surimi industries. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 24, 977-987.

 

Zeinaddine H.R.; Ebrahimi A.; Alipour V.; Rezaei L.(2013.): Removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater of seafood market by intermittent cycle extended aeration system (ICEAS). Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System, 1, 89-93.

 

Zrnčević S. (2008.): Biološko čišćenje voda zagađenih organskim spojevima – I. dio. Technoeco, 6, 68-71.

 

Zrnčević S. (2009.): Biološko čišćenje voda zagađenih organskim spojevima – II. dio. Technoeco, 1, 1-3.